@Marc - thanks for posting!
The reason you don't have any permissions to edit or configure the dashboard is because the menu links you have create are links to domain dashboards. Domain dashboards are templates of dashboards that you have created elsewhere in your Portals system. Übersicht und Temperaturen are the names you have given these templates, you should be able to find the ID of the source dashboard on your /admin/domaindashboards page. The dashboards using the template you referenced cannot be edited by the end user, as they are a method by which an administrator would homogenize the end-user's experience. You could of course update the source dashboard and commit the changes by refreshing the pointer on the /admin/domaindashboards page.
As for permissions, the should be unchanged in while using the dashboards using your domain templates. This means that read, write, and edit calls made on resources should work as expected.
How are you passing resources into this widget? My first guess is that the data you expect to be sent into the widget's context is not there.
Let me know if you have questions,